HANDICRAFTS- SILK WEAVING AND ORNAMENTAL FABRICS
Hand loom Map of Bargarh District..HISTORICAL EVOLUTION OF HANDLOOM WEAVING
The growth of weaving activity in the district is ascribed to the advent of the “Bhulia Meher” community in around 1765 AD from Sonepur. Bhulia Mehers are said to have been original inhabitants of Rajasthan and Delhi from where they moved to Dhamantari and Dhansa villages of Raipur district of Chhattisgarh. Later on, they were brought to Patnagarh of Bolangir district after the first Chauhan King Ramai Deb ascended the throne of Bolangir Patnagarh. It is presumed that the original Bhulia Meher community, after setting down in the region, intermingled with the other castes too and soon the kosta Mehers ( who are usually tussar weavers ) and Kuli Mehers ( who are the least skilled labour class) came into existence. The district predominantly consists of the Bhulia and Kosta Meher and the Ganda weavers. Kosta and Bhulia caste figures around 30% and 50% respectively each, where as Harijan/Kuli caste accounts for 20% only of the total weaver population in the district.
SILK WEAVING :-
Tusser silk weaving was for many years as a principal industry of the Sambalpur district of which Bargarh was a part. Dr. Short who visited Sambalpur in 1855 found that tusser silk was manufactured to a great extent, the fabrics being used locally and also exported that five large villages or towns were occupied in weaving tusser, and in each, at the very lowest computation, 1,000 tans or pieces were produced annually. The culture of the tusser silkworm was carried on in almost every jungle village and at least 7.5 million cocoons were produced. Only one-third of the cloth remained in the district the rest being exported to Cuttack and Berhampur , and also to Raipur and Bilaspur; and it is clear that the industry was then in a flourishing condition. Again in 1876 it was reported that Sambalpur(includes Bargarh) was more advanced than other districts of the Central Province (now Madhya Pradesh) both in the quality of the cocoons exported and in the workmanship of the cloth produced by its weavers. The export of manufactured tusser had apparently fallen off, but half of the cocoons produced were sent out to Ganjam, Cuttack, Raipur & Bilaspur.
Since that time the industry declined still further, the local supply of tusser cocoons having decreased in quantity, degenerated in quality, and risen in price. The closer conservation of Government forest, the clearing of village forests which were most convenient to the rearers, unfavorable seasons, and lack of care and capital on the part of the breeders are all said to have contributed to this result. For the rearing of tusser worms differs widely from the rearing of the ordinary silk worm, in that the later is a domesticated insect, where as the tusser worm thrives best when in the jungle. Not being able to have access to forests, the rearers have not renewed their stock of cocoons from wild seed. Consequently, declination sets in, diseases such as grasserie have become common and the cocoons do not contain as much silk as formerly. Even as long ago as 1892, the rearing of the tusser worm in Government and malguzari forests had practically ceased. It was then reported that the cocoon rearers had migrated to the Feudatory States, where although taxed, they were at least given strips of forest, and that the weavers drew their supplies of cocoons only from those States and form the Zamindaris. This was exactly the condition of affairs which then existed, except that the weavers had to go further afield for their supply, and obtain most of the cocoons from Singhbhum and Baudh State.
The rearing of the tusser worm (locally called Kosa) was carried on by Gandas, chiefly on the Sahaj tree (Terminalia tomentosa). Spinning and weaving were a monopoly of the Koshtas, the centers of the industry being Sambalpur, Remenda and Barpali. The industry was carried on almost entirely with cocoons imported from outside the district. The rearing of tusser cocoons is almost extinct as an industry in this district. The Koshtas were extremely conservative in their methods and the silk industry of the district suffered setbacks owing to the necessity of importing cocoons and the failure of the weavers, to adopt more up-to-date methods.
Present only 35 no. of looms are working on silk and 28 no. of looms are working on tusser yarn of this district.
COTTON WEAVING :-
The district is famous throughout India and even abroad for handloom fabrics. It is an indigenous industry manned mostly by Kostha and Bhulia weavers. Besides their adroit workmanship, the speciality of their products is reckoned more for the choice of colour and the design. This has earned them world-wide fame. This industry was in a flourishing condition in the past. Some fine exhibits of handloom fabrics at the British Exhibition in Wembley in 1924 and 1925 were much appreciated and orders were obtained though the department of Industries and Labour for a supply of the said type of cloth. The weavers exhibited considerable taste in colour and variety of pattern. Even the coarsest cloth was woven with a dainty border. The Bhulias had nothing to fear from competition with mill cloth as they made good use of their monopoly of inherited skill. The Gandas who weave a cheaper and coarser cloth went down against the onslaught of the glamour of mill cloth.
With the passage of time Sambalpuri Sharees have got national and international attention due to their texture, colour and design. Even it has been found that women of this district rarely wear mill-made sarees or handloom sarees produced in other part of the State.
Scarcity of raw materials went of capital and lack of marketing facilities is the greatest impediments in their progress. They manufacture generally Saree, Dhoti, Gamuchha, Bed-sheets etc. Gradually many co-operative societies are being formed of the weavers of the district. Technical aid is also being given. During 1966-67 there were 96 weavers co-operative societies in the district consisting of 14,426 members. The total working capital was Rs. 30, 14,000. There were 12,433 looms for weaving cotton fabrics and 1,365 looms for silk weaving in the district out of which 6,447 looms and 180 looms, respectively were working during 1966-67.
Presently about 1200 no. of looms are working on cotton yarn in this district.
TRADITIONAL DESIGNS AND PRODUCTION PROCESS:-
The traditional cloth designs are mainly produced by (1) the Tie and Dye-processes, and (2) extra yarn stitching.
When the tie and dye is done either in warp or weft it is called single ikat and when it is done both in warp and weft it is called double ikat. The flow charts of single and double ikat are as follows-
EVOLUTION OF SAREES
In order to understand the evolution of Sarees, we have to resort to “Saktapar” Saree of Kardola which was only 09 hat using 40s 2 ply cotton yarn which was happened to be the oldest pattern saree. The chronology of Saree production goes like this.
1950-55 Napthal dyes was used
1957 onwards Double Ikat was introduced
1960 onwards Vat colours came into being
1960-65 60s, 80s, 100s and 2 ply yarn were used
1970 Mercerised cotton yarn came into existence
TYPE OF WEAVERS IN THE DISTRICT
(i) Bhulia- Traditional weavers
(ii) Harijan, Kosta, Kuli weavers.
HANDLOOM INDUSTRY IN BARGARH DISTRICT
Bargarh district is famous for its handloom weaving Just like its agriculture. The handloom weavers are residing in all most all blocks of the district. But blocks like Barpali, Bargarh, Bijepur, Sohella, Bheden and Attabira are deeply populated with handloom weavers. They are famous in silk, tussur and cotton weaving. The quality and design of the products are gradually improving. The products manufactured have been changed from coarser count cotton to finer count and use of chemical dye stuff in place of natural colours having good fastness got momentum.
Number of Looms: Bargarh enjoys a pride of place being the highest weaving population with the highest nos. of active looms in the State. Apart from this, weaving activities are in full swing in more than 300 villages covering all the blocks of the district. Simultaneously, there are number of high skilled weavers in the district as a result, number of National and State awardees belong to Bargarh District. The handloom concentrated villages are namely Jhiliminda, Singhpali, Lurupali, Barahguda, Baragaon, Katapali, Khuntpali, Gudesira, Barpali, Bandhapali, Bagbadi, Kushunpuri, Jalpali, Bijepur, Pada, M.Sirgida, Bairakhpali, Laumunda, Sarkanda, Jhar, Chichinda, Remunda, Jamdol, Bheden, Khairpali, Jamla, Ruchida, Hatisar, Bhatli- Kushunpuri
As per handloom census 2010, there are 12090 nos. of looms in Bargarh district. The block wise position is as follows.
SAMBALPURI BASTRALAYA HANDLOOM CO-OPERATIVE SOCIETY LTD, BARGARH
Sambalpuri Bastralaya Handloom Co-operative Society Ltd is registered vide Registration No. 117/SM dt.22.06.1954 under Odisha Cooperative Society ACT & Rule. Padmashree Dr. Krutartha Acharya was the founder and life time president of the society
Sambalpuri Bastralay is a world famous Primary Handloom Coop. Society for production of exclusive Sambalpuri Tie & Dye fabrics. Later on following the innate of Sri Acharya it evolves as the largest handloom cooperative society in the state as well as in the country. The society is having It’s vast net work of production and marketing organization founded by Padmashree Dr. Krutartrha Acharya for preservation and propagation of great Odishan Handloom Crafts. The society is having 25 production branches for providing works to the weaver members and 12 sales outlets to market the products of its members throughout the district.
STRENGTHENING OF CO-OPERATIVE STRUCTURE.
In order to sustain the cooperative societies created in the region, the state government provided a lot of support in from of subsidies, margin money, rebate, market development assistance and technical assistance through its Assistance Director Textiles (ADT) offices and their Weaving Supervisors and Textiles Inspectors during 1980-1990. Further to provide marketing support to the increased production through the primary weaver cooperative societies, the birth of the Apex Society of the state – “BOYANIKA” took place during this period. ‘Sambalpuri Bastralaya’ also grew through this heightened support to become one of the largest cooperatives in the country. During this period, these institutions procured about 70- 80% of the total production of the primary societies and were able to provide regular payments leading to sustainable employment for the weaver community.
FUNCTIONING OF -HANDLOOM SOCIETY
Sambalpuri Bastralaya Handloom Coop. Societies is the biggest primary Handloom Society being highest number of weavers with highest turnover of 45 Crores in the State which is the pride of the State in general and Bargarh district in particular. The brand name of Sambalpuri Bastralaya enjoys a great fascination among numerous customers for its exquisite colours combination mingled with beautiful texture and design which cater employment to a sizeable mass..Apart from the weavers cooperative societies of the district 125 nos of weavers self help groups have been actively involved in weaving activities, covering 1320 nos of weavers. They are also working for the socio economic up-lift meant of the weavers.
OLD – VERSUS NEW
Following changes have been made in pre-loom activities like warping, wefting, use of readymade warp etcEXCLUSIVE PRODUCTS :
Bargarh district is empowered with illustrious designers as result those designers are engaged in the application of rare designs by means of both literature and imagination into reality in their handiwork. To be precise, designers taking reference from mythology literature, historical back ground and Sanskrit hymns and finally yielding place them into their creation in a splendid manner. Moreover, Sarees are being named after female characters from literature, mythology, historical only to attract lady customers (like “Gajagamini”, “Tapaswini”, “Jagyansini” etc.).
Simultaneously, their output embodies itself messages with socio-environmental and socio-cultural values which are highly informative, educative and instructive e.g. preservation of forest, matrimonial stages and life cycle of human beings, “God and Goddess” in which dancing postures with their respective hymns are well depicted which is evident in their artistic prowess.
There are weavers who engaged themselves in setearch work with the help of cotton yarn with Tassar and cotton yarn with Khadi as a result they earned districtinction at National as well as of State level for their innovative ideas.
• Double Ikat (Sakta or Passa Palli) Cotton Saris
• Single Ikat Cotton Saris
• Single & Double Ikat Ladies / Gents Dress Material
• Tassar Silk / Bapta (Cotton + Tassar) Saris
• Single & Double Ikat Bed Covers
• Single and Double Ikat Cotton Handkerchiefs, Lungi, Napkin
Count of Yarn used:
• 2/120s mercerised cotton yarn
• 2/100s mercerised cotton yarn
• 2/80s mercerised cotton yarn
• 2/60s mercerised cotton yarn
• 2/40s Cotton yarn
• 17 NF / 26’s Cotton Yarn
• Tassar and Silk yarn
• Lungies :- Rs. 200/- to 320/- per pc.
• Shirting :- Rs. 160/- to 400/- per mtr.
• Coarse variety Saree :- Rs. 600/- to 1800/- per pc.
• Fine variety Saree :- Rs. 2000/- to 6000/- per pc.
• Exclusive Saree :- Rs.8,000/- and above
• Bed sheets (Single) :- Rs. 300/- to 1000/- per pc.
• Bed sheets (Double) :- Rs. 650/- to 5000/- per pc.
Double IKAT Double Bed Sheet
The most notable feature of the handloom expansion in the district is that at Chichinda, there are 200 weavers weaving only double ‘IKAT DOUBLE BED SHEET’ which is conspicuous in the State. Consequently, product range varies from Rs.1,000/- to Rs.15,000/-are available.
Employment Generation: Handlooms puts only second to agriculture in the district as far as generation of employment is concerned. At the same time handloom enjoys twin objective of generation of employment as well as preservation of traditional heritage and culture. Besides, it increases the per-capita income of weavers of the district much higher than that of the weavers of other district. Further, it attracts youngsters to pick up handloom as a mean of livelihood.
One of the unique feature of Bargarh district is that handloom market takes place at ‘BALIJURI’ market which is only 12 Kms. Away from Bargarh where the whole of handloom activities are sold to the tune of 1 Crore within a short span of a few hours from dawn. Not to speak of weaves of the district alone rather it has a spillover effect on the districts like neighboring district like Sambalpur, Bolangir, Boudh and Subarnapur and States like Chhattisgarh and Jharkhand as a result it is an impetus for the socio-economic of the weavers of the district.
GOVT INSTITUTION IN HANDLOOM SECTOR OF BARGARH-
1. The office of the Asst Director of Textiles-cum-Asst Registrar of Cooperative societies office was established by Govt of Odisha in the year 1962 to look after the handloom activities of the district. and to implement different govt schemes introduced by the Govt. from time to time. The office is manned with technical and administrative staff to guide the primary weavers cooperative societies and self help groups with various technical and management work.
2. One office of the Joint Director of Textiles has been opened in the district in the year 1991 to supervise and guide the office of the Asst. Director of Textiles of the District. as well as nearby district. of Sundargarh.
3. The Govt of India, New Delhi has also set up one Indian Institute of Handloom Technology (IIHT) at Bargarh from 2008 to impart 03 years diploma course in Handloom and Textile Technology to create skilled personnel in handloom field. They are engaged in transferring new technology to the weavers through various training.
4. A spinning mill in the name of The Odisha Weavers Co-operative Spinning Mills Limited has been established at Tora, near Bargarh at a cost of rupees 88.37 lakhs. It is a co-operative enterprise and has been registered during 1959. There are 327 share-holders, the paid-up share capital being Rs. 33.44 lakhs. The installed capacity of the factory is 12,000 spindles. The unit has not gone into production. When completed it will produce 4,417 kg of yarn per annum. The primary object of this unit is to assure supply of yarn to the handloom weavers co-operative societies.
Presently the same unit is under defunct stage.
5. A power loom factory in the name of Ram Nagar Power Loom Co-operative Society Ltd., has been established at Tora in Bargarh subdivision at a cost of Rs. 9.61 lakhs. It is a co-operative enterprise which employees about 94 persons and produces Dhoti, Bed-sheets, napkins and long cloth, etc. The factory started production from September 1964. Average production per year is 8.50 lakh metres of cloth.
Presently the same unit is under defunct stage.
Apart from this one private spinning mill in the name of Sri Krishnsna Fab Spin PVT Ltd, has been set up at Dash Mile Chhowk (Sohela Block) since 2001 to meet the raw material need of the weavers of the district. Presently the capacity of the unit is 7200 Spindle with 250 to 300 bales per month depending on the count of yarn varies from 60’s to 80’s with twisting facilities. The unit is functioning well.
Apart from the dye house of Sambalpuri Bastralaya HLCS Ltd, 5 nos. of Dyeing Unit and 3 nos. of mercerization plant are also functioning in the district in private sector.
FUNCTIONING OF ASSISTANT DIRECTOR OF TEXTILES OFFICE, BARGARH
After independence, Co-operative movement was initiated by Govt. of Odisha in different sector including hand loom. Accordingly, nos. of Weavers Co-operative Societies were formed with help of staff of Office of the Asst. Director of Textiles, Bargarh to provide all type of input and market support to the members of each P.W.C.S. registered in different handloom concentrated village of the District.
The Office of the Asst. Director of Textiles, Bargarh was established since 1.02.1962 and was functioning in a rented building. Now, the office is functioning in its own building near Mini Stadium, Bargarh since 15.02.1989.
At present, 33 nos. of Primary Co-operative Societies are working in the district.
As per Govt. of India Cluster Development Programme, 8 Mini Handl oom cluster and C.H.D.S. programme are being implemented in 9 important hand loom concentrated village with financial support of Govt. of India and Govt. of Odisha for the development of hand loom activities with following individual oriented and infrastructural component.
1) Skill Up-gradation
2) Exposure visit
3) Technological up-gradation
4) Design development support
5) Market survey and intelligence
6) Buyer Seller meets
7) Construction of Work shed
The Govt of India and govt. of Odisha has introduced several schemes for the economic development of weavers of the district. They are as follows-
1) Mahatma Gandhi Bunkar Bima Yojana
2) Health Insurance scheme for weavers
3) National handloom development Programme
4) Promotion of handloom development(POHI) scheme
5) Revial reform and restructure Package
6) Weavers Credit Card scheme
7) Yarn supply scheme
8) Supply of Solar lantern schelme
9) Concretisation of loom pit
10) Work shed cum Housing Scheme
Due to financial support under all these programme, presently one un-skilled weaver is able to earn Rs.3500/- to Rs.6000/- per month whereas skilled weavers are able to earn Rs.7000/- to Rs.12000/- per month.
EMINENT PERSONALITIES OF BARGARH DISTRICT IN THE FIELD OF HANDLOOM.
1. Padmashree Dr. Krutartha Acharya:- Dr. Acharya was born in the village Dapakatikira of P.S. Bheden on 20th March’1900 in a poor family. He became a primary teacher and came to be popularly known as “Krutartha Master”. He came to Bargarh in the year 1928 and being inspired by Swadeshi Andolan of Mahatma Gandhi he created a small Khadi institution. On the other hand in the Khadi institution he came across the SC weavers and gained the knowledge how to prepare khadi yarn from cotton fiber and how to prepare khadi cloth going through sizing process. However, in course of time, he evinced interest on weaving. He studied the art of dyeing from ancient manuscripts; he invented the technique of using fast colours though he was illiterate in it. Afterwards opportunity came for him to meet the J. C. Bhattacharya, representative for eastern India of Harbo Company of Germany. Then Sri Acharya took vow to dedicate himself for the socio-economic development of these down trodden weavers community. He started his journey taking his co-workers and established Sambalpuri Bastralaya during the year 1933. During the period of British rule in India, Late Acharya organized the weavers’ community by moving from village to village restored the handloom weaving trade which was in the state of extinct. He was associated in promoting various Cooperative organizations such as Odisha Weavers’ Cooperative Spinning Mills Ltd., Bargarh Cooperative Sugar Mill etc. He was an active co-operator and freedom fighter. Another important thing is that having no qualification in textiles chemistry he established a well equipped dye house having boilers, kiers, and hydro extractor in the dye house. Mostly he used Vat clour in the dye house which has the best fastness in all respect. Due to his sincere and concentrated efforts, the Sambalpuri Bastralaya Handloom Cooperative Society Ltd., Bargarh was created. From the creation of Cooperative Society till his demise on 7.5.1979 he remained as the President of Sambalpuri Bastralaya. During his tenure as president of the society, for development of handloom tie and dye art in the Western belt, he had taken enough initiative and pain for which he was awarded “Padmashree” by the President of India in on 25.05.1965 and Sambalpur University awarded him honorary “Doctorate Degree” on 12.4.1975. During his tenure of office, society was adorned with many laurels for it’s outstanding performances in handloom sector. Lastly it can be concluded that his ambition was socio economic development of Handloom Weavers. Sambalpuri Bastralaya is a world famous Primary Handloom Coop. Society for production of exclusive Sambalpuri Tie & Dye fabrics. Later on following the innate of Sri Acharya it evolves as the largest handloom cooperative society in the state as well as in the country. Due to his relentless and arduous efforts tie & dye fabrics which is an indigenous industry is in burgeoning trend since last 5 decades. The society is having It’s vast net work of production and marketing organization founded by Padmashree Dr. Krutartrha Acharya for preservation and propagation of great Odishan Handloom Crafts. His vast knowledge of technique of Bandha (IKAT) remain with us as a source of inspiration in Western Odisha weavers whose magic figures weave, depict tales of joy and ancient culture , speaks the language of heart & retains the rich ritual heritage of the country.
2. Shilp Guru Padmashree Late Kunja Bihari Meher
(22-11-1928 – 30-06-2008) S/o Late Brajamohan Meher was born on 22/11/1928 at Budapali in Bijepur Block. Being a drop out at the age of twelve completing upper primary stage he learn the customary profession of handloom from his father.. He has been awarded with various awards like State award in 1984, National Award by Govt. of India in 1984 and Padmashree Award by Hon’ble President of India 12-04-1998 and prestigious Shilp Guru Award in the year 2004. He has also been nominated as member of all India handloom board by Govt. of India. He has also been awarded many prizes and award from diferent organisation / institutions,. The research of Kunja Bihari Meher on the fields of this weaving technique since 1954 to popularise it and to make it a contemporary achievement with the touch of modernity is another contribution by the great artist. The Sarees like Mandaraphulia(1943), Puspabati (1950) Ratnabati (1951), Gajagamani (1952), Mruganayani (1953) Padmabati , Chamakamalini, Bhanumati, Indumati, Kalingaratna, Minanayani, Padma O Surya, Katikeshari, Snehamayee, Tarangini, Pataliprabha, Kalinga sundari, Puspamanjari, Bharata ratna, Bharatikusuma, Pragatiratna, Panchakanya, Sokuntalam,Kalaratna and wall hanging like Hansa-o-padma, the gloryof Odisha, Bapuji ki Abadan, Ghandijinka tini manakada, Nabagunjar from Sarala Mahabharat, Dasabatar, Laxmipuja, Russia ra mahapurusa Lenin, Swabhaba Kabi Gangadhar Meher, Statue of Liberty in America, Jyotrimayee,Maa Saraswati are the famous creation of the great artist.
3. Dr. Keshab Chandra Meher born on 1925, a man of many talents, his contribution to odia literature and Odia art and crafts is immense. In the past he served competently as principal of a college and production officer (textiles) as well as a research officer (Odisha handlooms). In the field of weaving he inherited and developed technical expertise. He has also given many innovative ideas on different type of weaving and design based on local culture. He has also received awards and citation from several literary and cultural institutions. He was also member of a no. of renowned literary and cultural organisations. He has written different books related to art, craft and literature. The following are his important publication in the field of Handloom.
1. Samabaya O Tantubaya (Odia)
2. Paschima Odishara Bayana Kala(Odia)
3. The Odishan Art of Weaving.
PRESIGIOUS AWARDS IN THE FIELD OF WEAVING AND AWARDEES OF THE DISTRICT:
1. SANT KABIR AWARD is conferred by Development Commissioner for Handlooms, Ministry of Textiles, Government of India to outstanding handloom weavers who are carrying on with the tradition and have made valuable contribution to the development of the sector. Award and financial Assistance: This award consists of one mounted gold coin, one tamra patra, one shawl and a certificate. In addition to this, Rs.6.00 lakh financial assistance is also given to encourage and create 10 new products of high level of excellence, high aesthetic value and quality in duration of one year in three instalments.
SANT KABIR AWARDEES OF THE DISTRICT
1. Shree Shashidhar Meher s/o Late Premraj Meher was born on 20th June 1938 in a traditional ikat weaving family of village Khuntpali in Bargarh district. Shree Shashidhar Meher has contributed a lot during his carrier at Sambalpuri Bastralaya as designer in the projects like “National Sample Collection” and “ Kalinga Bastra” Project . He was conferred the national award in 2006 . He attended 25th Indo-Thai Entrepreneur’s summit, Bangkok, Thailand in August 2010. He received the Sant Kabir Award in the year 2010 for his work “Brikshya Devata Saree”.
2. Shree Kshetra Mohan Meher s/o late Sartuka Meher was born on 8th June 1947 at Barpali of Bargarh Districtof Odisha. He was conferred “Kala Nidhi” in Suraj Kund as recognisation of his excellence in weaving and national award in the year 2006. He received the Sant Kabir Award in the year 2010 for his work “Braja Sundari Tassar Saree”.
3. Shri Murali Meher S/o Late Sri Rajiba Meher was born on 03.02.1956 at Jhiliminda in Bargarh District in a Bhulia (Weaver) family. He developed many new designs in tie & dye. In order to revive the Sambalpuri Saree. Due to his encouragement, no. of weavers won National Award. He has been practising the craft for 42 years. He received many awards including National Award in 1995. He received the Sant Kabir Award in the year 2012 for his work “ Kala Putuni Suti Saree”.
4. Shri Bhikhari Meher S/o Shri Suna Meher was born on 03.01.1957 at Barpali in Bargarh district. He received many awards including National Award in 2010.
He received the Sant Kabir Award in the year 2012 for his work “Mangala Stotra (Hanuman Chalisha) Wall Hanging”.
5. Shri Surendra Meher S/o Late Padma Shree Shilp Guru Kunj Bihari Meher was born on 06/04/1959 at Barpali in Bargarh district. He has been awarded with various awards like National Award in 1991 , Kalanidhi Award in 1994, State Award in 1987,1988 and 1989, UNESCO Award of Excellence in the year 2006, 2007 and 2012. He worked for simplification of traditional Ikat craft and trained no. of weavers of his locality. He has also published his article in various National / State level newspapers, magazines, and souvenirs etc. He has also published a book titled “Bandha Shilpi Ra Videsa Anubhuti” which describes the technique of Ikat weaving, which is now in the syllabus of Sambalpur University. He received the Sant Kabir Award in the year 2013 for his work “Bandhodaya saree”.
6. Shri Dayalu Meher S/o Padmashree Shilpaguru Late Kunja Bihari Meher was born on 14.04.1955 at Budapali in Bargarh District. Due to his encouragement, no. of weavers got National Awards. He trained no. of weavers in handloom weaving. He has been practising handloom weaving for 45 years. He received many awards including National Award in 1993.
He received the Sant Kabir Award in the year 2014 for his work “Odishi Ikat saree”.
7. Shri Bhagabana Meher S/o late Shri Upendra Meher was born on 26.01-1959 at Barpali in Bargarh District. Due to his encouragement, some weavers got State and National Awards. He received National Award in 2003. He also received UNESCO craft prize. He received the Sant Kabir Award in the year 2014 for his work “Asta Laxmi and Sri Yantra Wall Hanging”.
2. NATIONAL AWARD:-
National Award is conferred by Development Commissioner for Handlooms, Ministry of Textiles, Government of India to handloom weavers in recognition of their outstanding craftsmanship, contribution and development of handloom weaving. Award and financial Assistance: Award consists of a cash prize of Rs.1, 00,000/-, one tamrapatra, one shawl and a certificate
3. STATE AWARD
State Awards are conferred from 2009-10 on highly skilled weavers, tie and dyers and designers in recognition to their outstanding contribution, craftsmanship and development of craft. Craft persons engaged in revival and production of languishing varieties of handloom fabrics shall also be considered for the purpose.
List of State Awardees of Bargarh District.
LABOUR LAWS AND RELATIONS,PROTECTION OF LABOUR,TRADE UNIONISM & LABOUR WELFARE
MINIMUM WAGES ACT,1948
The Act was enacted in the year 1948 in order to secure the welfare of the workers in a competitive market by providing for minimum rate & Unit of wages in certain employments.
The object of the Act is to prevent exploitation of the workers and for this purpose of it aims at fixation and revision of minimum wages which the employer is bound to pay.
The Hon’ble Supreme Court has rightly observed in the case of Crown Almunium Works Vrs. Their workmen that “ Any employer who is unable to pay minimum rate of wages has no right to exists”. LLJ-1958 (SC)
Further, in a case between People’s Union for democratic Rights vrs. Union of India (1992) 2-LLJ-454, the Hon’ble Supreme Court has given an epoch making judgment which gives a new dimension to Article 23 of the Constitution of India by holding the word “Force” must be construed to include not only “Forced Labour”, i.e. legal or Physical force but also force resulting from economic compulsion which leaves no choice or alternative to a Labour or Service even though remuneration received for it is less than the minimum wages. The Court added that such a person would be entitiled to come to the Court for enforcement of his fundamental right under Article 23 by asking the Court to direct payment of minimum wages to him so that the labour service provided by him ceases to be “FORCED LABOUR” and breach of Article of 23 is remedied.
The minimum rate of wages was fixed for the first time by the Labour Department in the year 1954. The fixation was different for three areas of the state. The rate of wages fixed for Male, Female and Child was Rs.0.75 (Twelve Anna), Rs.0.62 (Ten Anna) and Rs.0.50 (Eight Anna) respectively.
In the year 1961 this rate of minimum wages was fixed to Rs.1.00 for whole state of Odisha and the discriminated wages for Male, Female & Child was abolished. According to the revision in the year 1989 the rate of minimum wages was fixed Rs.11.00 per day.
During the year 1990 the rate of minimum wages was Rs.25/- vide Notification dated 30.6.1990. This rate of minimum wages was payable to the unskilled category of employees, though a social welfare measure is declared invalid in view of the statutory provision of the Act and Rules. The said notification are quashed by the Hon’ble Odisha High Court in the Case Utkal Chamber of Commerce and Industry Ltd vrs. State of Odisha-1992-CLT(73)P-882.
The Govt. further fixed the rate of minimum wages for semiskilled, skilled & Highly skilled categories of workers to Rs.30/-, Rs.35/- & Rs.40/- receptively employed in 79 scheduled employments. The rate of minimum wages has been fixing by the Govt. in accordance with provisions of Sec.3 of the Minimum Wages Act from time to time.
Recently, the Govt. has made revision on the rates of minimum wages vide Notification No.6502-LL-I(AR)-1/15/LESI dated 24.7.2015. According to this notification the rate of minimum wages are Rs.200/-, Rs.220/-, Rs.240/- & Rs.260/- for Un-skilled, Semi-skilled, Skilled & Highly-Skilled categories of employees/workers employed in 88 scheduled of employments effective from 24.7.2015.
Information on implementation of Provisions of the Act in relation to Bargarh District during the 2014 up to 14.8.2015..THE BUILDING & OTHER CONSTRUCTION WORKERS (REGULATION OF EMPLOYMENT & CONDITIONS OF SERVICE) ACT,1996.
The Building & Other Construction Workers (Regulation of Employment & Conditions of Service) Act,1996 (In short –Act) is a blessing for the unorganized labourers working in different construction work under taken by both Public & Private sector including individual employers.
The object of this Act is to regulate the employment & conditions of service of the Building & Other Construction workers and to provide for their safety, health and welfare measure and for other matters connected therewith or incidental thereto.
In other word this Act shall not be ceased to fall within the meaning of a social security measures for construction workers particularly working in unorganized sector.
According to the provisions of the Act a Welfare Board under the name and style of Odisha Building and Other Construction Welfare Board has been constituted. A welfare funds is operation under the direct supervision of the Board. The benefits of the construction labour are being met from the cess collected from different construction work.
The Govt. of Odisha passed a Resolution vide No. LL-I(iii)- 25/07 12653 dated 15.12.2008 for collection of Cess @ 1% from the total cost of the construction undertaken by the different establishments. Accordingly the employers/owners of both private & public sector are paying cess to the welfare fund. Financial assistance is being extended to the eligible registered construction labour from such welfare fund.
* Building & Other Construction Work as defined under section 2 (1) (d) of the Act are covered “construction, alteration, repairs, maintenance or demolition of or in relation building, streets, roads, railways, tramways, airfields, irrigation, drainage, embankments & navigation works, flood control works (including storm water drainage works) oil & gas installations, electric lines, wireless, radio, television, telephone, telegraph, & overseas communications, dams, canals, reservoirs, water courses, tunnels, bridges, viaducts, aqueducts, pipelines, towers, cooling towers, transmission towers cutting, breaking and crushing of stone, cutting, polishing of slab, wood works including painting & varnishing, sewerage and plumbing work, interior work including carpeting, cutting, glazing and installation of glass & such other work as may be specified in this behalf by the appropriate Government by Notification.”
* Who is Construction Labour:- means a person who is employed to do any skilled, semiskilled or unskilled, manual, supervisory, technical or clerical work for hire or reward in the job connected with any building & other construction work.
* Registration of Building & Other Construction Workers: Every building worker who has completed 18 years of Age but not completed 60 years of Age.
* Every building/construction worker might have worked for not less than 90 days during the preceding 12 months in building & other construction work.
* Documents required for making application:
a) Application in Form-XXVII (Rule-265(1)
b) 03 nos. of Passport size color photo of the applicant.
c) Copy of Identity Proof.
d) Certificate in regard to age.
e) The above application is required to be certified by the Employer/Inspector of the Labour department having jurisdiction/Registered Trade union working of for construction labour or an affidavit to that effect.
f) Receipt showing the payment Registration Fee of Rs.20/-
* Provisions for Inter State Migrant Workman: This Act provides for registration of Inter State Migrant Workers who is employed minimum 90 days in the Building or Other construction wok of the outside state.
* Registering Officer under the Act. (Sec.12): The District Labour Officer, Assistant Labour Officer, Rural Labour Inspector have been declared as Registering Officer under the Act to register the construction workers as beneficiary.
* Annual Contribution: Every Registered beneficiary is required to make payment of Rs.50/- towards annual contribution.
* Information in regard to implementation of provisions of the Act in Bargarh District.
* Total No. of Registration as beneficiary as on 14.08.2015 – 33198.
* Total No. of Registration of migrant workers as beneficiary under B&OCW (RE&CS) Act as on 14.08.2015 – 674
* Total No. of Establishments Registered under Sec.7 :746
* Total Amount of Cess Collected as on 14.7.2015 :Rs.8,56,52,507.00
* Information on extension of various benefits to the eligible construction labour.
Besides, IEC activities has been undertaken by the District Labour Machinery from time to time to make aware the construction labour to avail the facilities flowing under the Act.
THE CHILD LABOUR (PROHIBITION & REGULATION) ACT, 1986.
Constitution of India on Child Labour:- Article 24 of the Constitution of India Promulgates that no child below the age of 14 years shall be employed to work in any factory or mine or engaged in any other hazardous employment. Article 39 (e) directs that children cannot be abused or forced to work and “to enter avocations unsuited their age or strength. Further clause (f) of the Article 39 provides that Children are given opportunities and facilities to develop in healthy manner and in conditions of freedom and dignity that childhood and youth are protected against exploitation, moral and material abandonment. Article 45 (Prior to 86 Constitutional Amendment Act,2002) stipulates that the state shall endeavor to provide early child hood care and education for all children until thy complete the age of six years.
The employment of Child labour has been prohibited in Indian Constitution as well as various labour laws enacted particularly on employment of workmen/workers/Labour.
The Child Labour (Prohibition & Regulations) Act,1986 gives focus on two activities such as ;
a) Prohibition of Employment of child labour in certain occupation and process and
b) Regulation of employment of child labour in Non-hazardous establishment.
The main object of the Act is to prohibit the engagement/ employment of children in certain employments and to regulate the condition of work of children in other than prohibited employment.
“Child” means a person who has not completed his 14 years of age and ‘Establishment” means a shop, commercial establishment, workshop, farm, Residential Hotel, Restaurant, eating houses, theatre or other place of public amusement or entertainment.
Section 3 of the Act prohibits employment of children in certain occupations and process set forth in Part A & B.
Section 6 of the Act provides provisions to regulate the conditions of work of children in the establishment in which none of the occupations or processes specified under Section 3.
Hours and Period of Work
* Between 7 p.m. to 8 a.m.
* Interval for Rest: One hour
* Spread over: Not more than six hours inclusive of interval and the time spent for waiting.
Not permitted to work
* No child shall be permitted or required to work over time.
* No Child shall be permitted or required to in any establishment on any day on which he has already been working in another establishment.
Dispute as to Age
In absence of Certificate of Age, the matter relating to age dispute of the concerned child shall be referred by the Inspector to the prescribed Authority.(Sec.10)
Maintenance of Register & Records by the occupier:
* Name & date of birth of every child, so employed or permitted to work
* Hours & Period of work of any such Child and the interval of Rest to which he/she is entitled.
* Nature of work of any such child.
Display of Notice
The Notice shall contains the abstract of Sec.3 pertaining to prohibit of employment of children and the provisions for penalties (Sec.12)
Health & Safety
To be notified by the appropriate Govt. in accordance with the guide-lines given in Sec.13 of the Act. (Sec.13)
INTER STATE MIGRANT WORKMEN (REGULATION OF EMPLOYMENT & CONDITIONS OF SERVICE) ACT, 1979.
The Act intends to regulate the employment of migrant workers, provide for their conditions of service and for the matters connected therewith.
The Act applies to every establishment in which five or more interstate migrant workmen are employed and to every contractor who employs five or more interstate migrant workmen on any day of the preceding 12 months.
Registration of Certain establishments
All the Principal Employer of establishments employing five or more interstate migrant workmen should get themselves registered and obtain certificate of Registration (sec.4).Employment of interstate migrant workmen without Registration is prohibited (Sec.6)
All the Contractors in an establishment employing 05 or more migrant workmen shall make application to the Licensing Officer to obtain a licence for recruitment of any person in a state for the purpose of his employment in any establishment situated in another state (Sec.8)
DUTIES & OBLIGATIONS OF CONTRACTOR
a) Contractor who recruit workmen at the time of recruitment shall pay displacement allowance equal to 50% of monthly wages payable to him. This is an additional wage and not refundable.
b) Shall pay journey of not less than fare to each migrant workman and the same is not refundable.
c) Shall treat the workman as on duty from the time he embarks on journey to place of work and returns finally to his/her native place. Journey period are considered “Duty”
PROBLEMS OF INTERSTATE MIGRATION WORKERS
It is observed by the National Commission on Rural Labour (1991) that the migrant workers are being deprived of in getting notified minimum wages and other welfare facilities like accommodation, toilet, water, winter clothes, cooking and medical in accordance with the provisions of law. Most of the migrant workers are not provided displacement allowances. The available date show that the contractor or Principal Employer punished for violation of various provisions of the Act is negligible.
Cause of Migration:- It is observed that the economic condition of the most of the working class people are measurable and at the same time they are also illiterate and trust easily to the contractor to the contractors/agents. For this reason the contractor/agents avail the opportunity in migration them from their native place to another state in order to engage them in brick making & other construction job. They are absolutely ignorant about facilities and compliance of other legal formalities before and after migration. As a result the contractors exploits them keeping tightly in their clutch.
In the past the District Labour Machinery have released and repatriated the migrant workers from the state of Andhre Pradesh, Karnataka according to the instruction of the Labour Directorate and District Administration.
Difficulties in Enforcement of ISMW Act
The Role of the originating state is confined with the licensing of the contractor. The real enforcement lies on the district labour machinery of the recipient state, where the migrant workers does not take appropriate steps for implementation of the Act. Besides the following reasons also create obstacle in enforcement.
a) The migrant workmen do not co-operate with enforcement agency for fear of losing job.
b) The contractor is split in the many sub-contracts and awarded separately. In this situation the Act may applicable to the establishment & Principal Employer may obtain registration certificate but the sub-contractors may not obtain a license as he may distribute the interstate migrant workmen to different contracts & keeping the number of ismw workmen less than five and thus the contractor avoids the applicability of the Act and at the same time such workmen are denied the facilities flowing under the Act.
RECOMMENDATION OF NATIONAL COMMISSION ON RURAL LABOUR
It is recommendation of National Commission on Rural Labour that the following changes be made under the Inter State Migrant Workers Act, 1979:
a) The Act should apply to every establishment in which one or more ISMW workmen is employed.
b) Definition of migrant workmen should be expanded to cover all migrant workmen, whether they come on their own or change contractors after entering the recipient state.
c) Violation of the Act should be made a cognizable offence. Third party should be allowed to file complaints.
d) A new section to be inserted to make contractor liable for any breach of the Act, whether committed by him or the sub-contractor. It is for the contractor to any action he desires against the sub-contractor.
e) The liability of the Principal Employer should be made very specific.
f) The related to claims of disabled workman or heirs/deceased workman should be transferred to the state from where the migrant workers were recruited. If so desired by the workman or his/her heirs.
g) Special Courts should be appointed where found necessary to hear the dispute concerning migrant and contract labour.
h) Steps should be taken for effective implementation of laws.
RECOMMENDATION & CONCLUSION:
It is therefore, necessary that the law should be amended to plug the loopholes and make the violation of law stringent. The following changes may be made under ISMW Act:
a) Principal Employer must get any work executed only through a licence contractor.
b) The security money deposited with licensing officer should be forfeited in additi on to revocation or suspension of licence of the contractor, if the contractor obtains a licence by misrepresentation or suppression of any material fact or if the contractor fails to comply with the conditions of licence.
c) It is very difficult on the part of the migrant workman to file claim under Workman’s Compensation Act for disabilities. Likewise the legal dependent of a deceased migrant worker has to file claim under the said Act in the State where the incident occurs. Hence, the law be amended accordingly in which the relevant person shall be able to file in his/her state.
d) The penal provisions should be made deterrent by increasing the amount of fine to a minimum Rs.10,000/-and daily fine Rs.1,000/-
Information on implementation of Provisions of the Act in relation to Bargarh District during the 2014 up to 14.8.2015.
Information Technology Sector in this District
District e Governance Society:-
District Information Services Council (DISC) was formed on November’ 2006 and renamed as District e-Governance Society (DeGS) with the following objectives.
With a view to constituting the District e-Governance Society (DeGS) to pursue the overall activities and promotion of the Information Technology in the State and to provide for a coordinating agency at the District level, the State Government do hereby frame a Society namely, DISTRICT e-GOVERNANCE SOCIETY (DEGS) by renaming the Society i.e. “DISTRICT INFORMATION SERVICES COUNCIL” registered earlier under the Society Registration Act, 1860
• Promote IT usages and bridge the digital divide between regions, peoples and classes within the District.
• Plan, implement and promote the activities of the State Portal in the District.
• Formulate the District Agenda for e-Governance.
• Promote electronic delivery of citizen’s services.
• Facilitate and promote interaction and synergy amongst various stakeholders including line Departments and NGOs in the use of ICT for e-Governance and Good Governance.
• Support preparation and implementation of information management plans by different line Departments and other organizations in the District.
The following G2G and G2C projects are currently operating in the District.
• “OSWAN” (Orissa State Wide Area Network) has been implementing with the objective to connect all the IT nodes in the state to District and Block level/Tahasil level. It is implement for connectivity of two way in the District i.e.
1. Vertical Oswan
Providing internet connectivity to the District Head Quarter for support Video Conference at District Head quarter and internet connectivity to all Block Head Quarters (except Head Quarter Block).
2. Horizontal Oswan
Providing Internet connectivity to District head quarter Block Office, District Rural Development Agency, All Tahasils, Medical offices, District Sub-Registrar and Sub Registrar of this District.
• “CSC” (Common Service Centre) opened in each Gram Panchayats for reaching the common services like printing, Xerox, internet browsing, etc to the rural citizens of Bargarh and MOU signed with District Administration to facility the uploading the citizens applying document for issue of Misc Certificate through e-District application Server.
• “e-Municipality” project to computerise the services by ULBs like Welfare schemes management system, property tax, solid waste management, account and audit, trade license and Grievances.
• “e-Registration” project to computerise the all sub registrar offices including District Sub registrar Office. The Citizens are facility to online registration of land.
• “e-District “initiative of the Department of Electronics & Information Technology (Deity), Govt. Of Odisha and Ministry of Communication & Information Technology (MCIT), Government of India has been identified as one of the Mission Mode Projects at the State level.
The e-District portal involves integrated and seamless delivery of citizen services by district administration through automation of workflow, back end digitization, integration and process redesigning across participating sections/departments for providing services in a most efficient manner to the citizens.
The e-District project has been implemented at Bargarh District from 25/11/2013 In 12 Tahsils for smooth delivery of online misc. Certificate to the Citizens. 56no. of CSCs are MOU signed with District Administration out of 12 no. of Tahasil for delivery the Misc. Certificate to the Citizen in timely. The 83 RI offices under this District are submitting the RI report online with a transparency.
HOTEL AND HOSPITALITY INDUSTRY IN BARGARH
Bargarh district with tourist places like. Gandhamardan hill range, Nrusinghnath Temple, Debrigarh Sanctuary and numerous temples along with festivals like Dhanuyatra, Baisakh Melaa attracts a number of tourists throughout the year. Apart from this due to developed medical facility, availability of different goods at reasonable prices and educational infrastructure particularly in Bargarh town, number of people from inside and out side in the state visit this place for personal reasons.
Keeping in view pleasant accommodation of the visitors, a number of Dharamshalas, Stay homes, Budget Hotels have flourished over the years in the district; specifically in and around Bargarh , Padampur and Paikmal.
Some of the important dharmashalas, Stay homes budget and executive hotels are-
1. Hotel Ganapati – Bargarh
2. Hotel Rayal Palace- Bargarh
3. Hotel Vinayak Residency-Bargarh
4. Hotel Swatik-Bargarh
5. Hotel Maharaja-Bargarh
6. Hotel Sawdia Palace- Bargarh
7. Hotel Oriental- Bargarh
8. Hotel Maa Sarala- Bargarh
9. Hotel Meera- Bargarh
10. Tuli Guest House- Bargarh
11. Hotel Raj Palace- Bargarh
12. Hotel Jagannath Palace-Bargarh.
13. Hotel Atithibihar- Padampur
14. Manorama Lodge-Padampur
15. Parameswari Lodge-Padampur
16. Sitaram Lodge- Padampur
18. Duke Lodge- Paikmal
19. Atithi Bhaban-Paikmal
20. Nrusinghanath Dharmashala-Paikmal
From employment generation point of view, the hotels and restaurants of this district give employment to almost 2500 illiterate, under educated and moderately educated youths.