National Health Mission
The National Health Mission (NHM) aims for attainment of universal access to equitable, affordable and quality health care services, accountable and responsive to people’s needs, with effective inter-sectoral convergent action to address the wider social determinants of health.Under NHM, support to States/UTs is provided for five key programmatic components:
(i) Health Systems Strengthening including infrastructure, human resource, drugs & equipment, ambulances, MMUs, ASHAs etc under National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) and National Urban Health Mission (NUHM).
(ii) Reproductive, Maternal, Newborn, Child and Adolescent Health Services (RMNCH + A)
(iii) Communicable Disease Control Programmes
(iv) Non-Communicable Diseases Control Programme interventions upto District Hospital level
(v) Infrastructure Maintenance- to support salary of ANMs and LHVs etc.
The objectives of NHM are summarised as under:
- Reduction in child and maternal mortality
- Prevention and control of communicable and non-communicable diseases, including locally endemic diseases.
- Access to integrated comprehensive primary health care.
- Population stabilisation, gender and demographic balance.
- Revitalize local health traditions & mainstream AYUSH.
- Universal access to public services for food and nutrition, sanitation and hygiene and universal access to public health care services with emphasis on services addressing women’s and children’s health and universal immunisation.
- Promotion of healthy life styles.
The NHM has been successful in accelerating the decline of Maternal Mortality Ratio (MMR), Under 5 Mortality Rate (U5MR), Infant Mortality Rate (IMR) and Total Fertility Rate (TFR). It has also achieved many of the disease control targets.
The key targets and achievements of NHM are given below: Targets as per NHM Framework for Implementation
|1||Reduce IMR to 25/1000 live births||IMR has reduced to 37 in 2015 (SRS).|
|2||Reduce MMR to 100/1,00,000 live births||MMR has reduced to 167 in 2011-13 (SRS).|
|3||Reduce TFR to 2.1||TFR has reduced to 2.3 in 2014 (SRS).|
|4||Reduce annual prevalence and mortality from Tuberculosis by half||Tuberculosis Prevalence and mortality reduced to half as compared to 1990 level.Incidence reduced from 300 / lakh in 1990 to 217/ lakh in 2015Mortality reduced from 76/ lakh in 1990 to 32/ lakh in 2015 Data Source : WHO Global TB report 2016|
|5||Reduce prevalence rate of Leprosy to <1/10000 population in all districts.||Prevalence rate of Leprosy reduced to Less than 1/10000 population in 551 Districts as on 31st March 2016.|
|6||Annual Malaria Incidence to be <1/1000||Annual Malaria Incidence is 0.67 in 2016.(Prov)|
|7||Less than 1 per cent microfilaria prevalence in all districts||Out of 256 LF endemic districts, 222 districts have reported Mf rate less than 1% as per reports of 2016.|
|8||Kala-Azar Elimination by 2015, <1 case per 10000 population in all blocks||Out of 628 endemic blocks 492 (78%) have already achieved elimination till 2016.|
Variousprogrammes running under theNHM has been regularly evaluated, inter-alia, through external surveys such as, National Family Health Survey (NFHS), District Level Household Survey (DLHS) and Sample Registration System (SRS). Further, Common Review Missions (CRMs) also undertake a review of NRHM/NHM annually.
The details on different evaluations are available in public domain as under:
A statement showing State/UT-wise Central Release and Expenditure during the last three years is given below:
|Statement Showing State/UT-wise Central Release and Expenditure under NHM from the F.Y. 2013-14 to 2015-16|
|Rs. in crore|
|Central Release||Expenditure||Central Release||Expenditure||Central Release||Expenditure|
|1||Andaman & Nicobar Islands||29.06||29.12||23.36||24.33||37.30||11.47|
|8||Dadra & Nagar Haveli||9.23||9.83||8.40||8.56||14.37||15.54|
|9||Daman & Diu||6.50||8.40||6.91||7.67||10.53||15.69|
|15||Jammu & Kashmir||395.10||391.10||335.51||393.29||367.90||420.94|
|1. The above Releases relate to Central Govt. Grants & do not include State share contribution.|
|2. The above releases are as per revised allocation|
|3. Expenditure (As per FMR submitted by States/UTs) includes Expenditure against Central Release, State release & Unspent balances at the beginning of the year.|
The Minister of State (Health and Family Welfare), ShFaggan Singh Kulaste stated this in a written reply in the Lok Sabha on17th March 2017 .