Breaking News
Home / Uncategorized / General info Bargarh

General info Bargarh

1.A BRIEF HISTORICAL,POLITICAL,SOCIAL,CULTURAL AND GEO-PHYSICAL INTRODUCTION OF BARGARH DISTRICT
The district of Bargarh was created on 1st April 1993 by dividing the erstwhile Sambalpur district in to four districtsviz. Sambalpur, Deogarh, Jharsuguda and Bargarh. It is bounded by the districts of Sambalpur in the east Nuapara of Odisha and Mahasamund region of Chhatisgarh in the west, Jharsuguda district of Odisha and Raigarh district of Chhatisgarh in the North & the districts of Bolangir and Sonepur in the south.

BARGARH
(ODISHA)

Geography of a region shapes the history of the people living therein. The geographic position of South Koshala therefore naturally impacted upon the history and life of the people of the region from time to time carving out the history of the geographical zone embracing the present district of Bargarh out of the ancient south Koshala region is in fact different. Hitherto, the history of the present district of Bargarh interwoven into the history of erstwhile Sambalpur region with changing administrative boundaries under different historical and administrative pretexts. The history of Bargarh district is constructed considering the historical geography of the boundary of the district, architectural remains, pre-historic finds, find spot of historical data, primary data analysis, available records etc. relating to the present line of boundaries of the districts.

The geographical position of the district with its natural rivers and mountains played a significant role in shaping the history, culture & religion of the people living in this region since pre-historical period.

Till the invasion of Samudragupta in the 4th Century A.D. this region was exclusively inhabited by indigenous hilly tribes. They were independent in their mind and life style and would not surrender to outside intuition in their way of life. It was therefore, Ashoka, the Mauryan king who invaded Kalinga in the 3rd Century B.C. preferred to stay away from direct military engagement and instead preferred to a warning to the people named as ‘Attavika’ or Forest People.

The region of south Koshala was close to Central India geographically. The invasion of South Koshala from Magadha opened a new line of communication connecting northern and south India. It was through this route that the process of Aryanisation entered  to the main land of Odisha.
The original inhabitants of this region, primarily tribals began to accept the process of Aryanisation in Phases. It was through a long process of affinity between the Aryans/Brahmins with the tribals that resulted in the assimilation of tribal faith with Brahamanism, the impact of which was manifested in the field of religion, art, architecture, sculpture, language and culture of not only this region but also in different parts of Odisha as subsequent stages.

The geographical location of this district served as a link of communication between Cuttack and Nagpur. It was because of the strategic position of the district that the Marathas and the British were interested to hold control over this region.
GEOGRAPHICAL DIVISIONS OF PRESENT
BARGARH DISTRICT
Geographically the district of Bargarh can be divided into three natural divisions viz. (i) The plain of Bargarh (ii) Raj Borasambar and (iii) Ambabhona-Lakhanpur.

  • The plain of Bargarh – It is formed by the rivers Jeera, Danta and Jhuan, the three tributaries of Mahanadi. The plain spreads from Godbhaga in the east to Sohela in the west and Bhatli in the north to Bheden-Turum in the south. It is an expanse of undulating country slopping down from the Barapahar range in the north to the Mahanadi valley in the south having a soil suitable to rice production. The soil is mixture of clay, sand & gravel. It is nowhere found bare of vegetation.
  • Raj Borasambar- RajBorasambar lies to the south-west of Bargarh plain is the 2nd largest division of the district. It is sub-divided into Gandhamardanamountain and forest range and Ong River valley.
  • Gandhamardana mountain and forest range –

It is formed by the three sub-ranges, the first being the GandhaMardana mountain itself. It has separated Bargarh from Bolangir district. It is 2000 to 3000 feet in height. Nrusinghanath is the highest peak with 3234 feet i.e. 985.72 metres in height. The mountain contains many natural streams & waterfalls like Kapildhar, Chaldhar, Bhimdhar. It has many kinds of medicinal plants of which some are rare in the world. The people of the region are attached religiously in these stream. It is the Ganga of Chhatisgarh people.
The second sub-range situated to the west of Nrusinghanath is running first North-South and then North-east at Jagdalpur where the River Ong breaks it.
The third sub-range runs eastward to Tal and then runs to the north-east separating the district of Bargarh from Chhatisgarh region. It is joining to the western end of Barapahar range & has linked to the tail of the Vindhya Mountain range of Central India.

  • Ong river valley

The Ong river valley is situated in between the hill ranges lying to the north & south of Raj Borasambar division. The whole valley particularly the eastern portion is best suited to agriculture due to river silt and hill drainage. The river has its origin in the Nuapara district & enters Raj Borasambar at its extreme south-west corner. It flows through in a wide Semi circle from west to east. It has left Bargarh district few miles east of Gaisilet to enter Subarnapur where joins withthe Mahanadi.

  • The Barapahar range and Ambabhona – Lakhanpur

Barapahar is a cluster of small hills situated to the North-east of the district. It is called Barapahar because the tradition of the region supposes it to be twelve in number. It has an area of 776 Sq. Km. and its highest peak Debrigarh is 2267 ft. in height. It provides an all-weather stream near the submit in the name of Barabakhra where a flanked stone roof having capacity of giving shelter to 500 persons was an important shelter place of the revolutionaries during Ulgulan of SurendraSai.

The Ambabhona-Lakhanpur plain is cut off from the Bargarh plain by a long spur of the Barapahar hill running south west nearly 48 Kms. The region is dominated by the Mali caste people who called Mango or Aam as Ama and mangroves as ‘Bhona’ for which the place was called “Amabhana”. The area is slopping down from the Barapahar to the River Mahanadi situated in the north-east. The Lakhanpur tract suitable for good cultivation is surrounded by forest clad and hills.
The whole Barapahar range is divided into the following reserve forest areas. (1) Sareidamu-Budharaja (7683.040 Hectare), (2) Dechuan-Lakhanpur (6997.000 hectare), (3) Phulsuri-Dungri Reserve Forest to the side of Mahanadi (880.964 hectare), (4) Lohra reserve forest near Kamgaon (346.091 hectare) & (5) Debrigarh Reserve forest (2409 hectare).
2.ORIGIN AND EVOLUTION OF THE NAME OF THE DISTRICT AND SIGNIFICANCE THEREOF
            The Indus Valley Civilization grew up in Harappa & Mahenjodaro seven thousand years before the birth of Jesus Christ. (1) Many ancient inscriptions were discovered here. But even before this civilization came into being, India was inhabited by better human beings. The script of the Indian civilization is known as ‘Saindhaba’ script and regarded as the Mother of all scripts. Many years later, history speaks of the ‘Administration’ of King Ashoka in Dhauli and Jaugarh which is written in Brahmi Script. The gap that exists between the discovery of the Saindhaba script and that of Brahmi script as in Ashoka’s ‘Administration’ is the period when the Bikramkhol inscription of the Sambalpur kingdom (also known as the Hirakhand Kingdom) was discovered. Bikramkhol is a mountain cave near Koilighoghar that now belongs to the district of Jharsuguda. The inscription discovered in this cave is thirty two feet long and seven feet wide. It is supposed to have been discovered two to three thousand years ago. It is also believed that the brahmi script originated with this inscription. Hence, historians believe the Bikramkhol inscription to be older than that of King Ashoka’s ‘Administration’. The Sambalpur Division came under Dakshin Koshal (South Koshal) at that time. It was known as ‘Sambalaka’ in the 1st century B.C. Pliny describes it as the land of ‘Sabarai’ in the 1st century A.D. in his book ‘National History’. We learn from history that the Chineese traveller Huen Tsang came to the then Parimalagiri (now known as Nrusinghanath) mountain during his visit to South Koshal in the 6th or 7th century A.D. King Indrabhuti ruled Sambalpur in the 8th century A.D. He patronised the Buddhist ‘Bajrajanas’. Later, this region was divided into smaller provinces and ruled by tribal chiefs belonging to ‘Gond’ or ‘Binjhal’ community.
In 1320 A.D. Ramai Dev founded the Chouhan dynasty in Patna. Balaram Dev belongs to this dynasty. He ruled Sambalpur from 1540 to 1556 A.D. His elder brother Narasingha Dev was the independent King of Patna. Balaram Dev was as stronger as popular. He got the Huma province as a share from his elder brother which was believed to be rich in gold and diamond along with natural surroundings. The river Chitrotpala (now Mahanadi) flowed in one end of the Huma Kingdom which was part of the then Koshal that included Dandakaranya. The then Koshal was surrounded by the rivers Mahanadi, Anga and Surangi on all the four sides. It would be more pertinent to view the Huma province as the Bargarh region than to call it directly Huma or Sambalpur Kingdom.
Prahallad Dubey in his book ‘Jayachandrika’ mentions that as the two brothers Narasingha Dev (elder) and Balaram Dev (younger) were not in good terms with each other, their mother gave Balaram Dev the Huma province which was a part of Patna Kingdom, as a share. She did it to prevent further tussle between the two. With the settlement, she made the two brothers swear not to quarrel anymore. The mother declared that whoever of the two failed to honour the settlement would be supposed to have committed the sin of outraging her modesty. The Huma province was on the northern side of the river ‘Anga’.(2)
The mother’s order made Balaram the ruler of the Huma Kingdom that existed in the northern side of the river ‘Anga’. But historian Shiba Prasad Dash records other reasons of the division of the Patna Kingdom as found in the manuscript of Sri Satyabadi Mishra. In his manuscript, Satyabadi Mishra contends that Balaram Dev got the kingdom “Kangaon Barapali” as a reward from his elder brother Narasingha Dev. But to spread his empire, the mighty and courageous Balaram Dev started conquering regions outside his Kingdom which irritated the elder brother Narasingha Dev. Narasingha Dev ordered Balaram Dev to leave the conquered regions and to go back to his original kingdom to which the latter paid no attention at all. So Narasingha Dev sent troops to drive away his younger brother forcibly from the conquered regions but the soldiers were defeated. Finally he came himself with his soldiers to fight with his younger brother. He camped at Salebhata which is situated on the southern side of the river ‘Anga’. Balaram Dev prepared his troops for the fight at Cherupali that existed on the northern side of the said river. Their mother knew it and interfered for a settlement. She divided the Patna Kingdom into two on the basis of the river. The ‘Anga’ river which originates in Khadial merges in Mahanadi in the Sonepur kingdom. Hence, it served the purpose of boundary line between the kingdom of Patna and that of Sambalpur. At that time, the Huma province existed on the northern side of the river and Bargarh was the central region.
THE ESTABLISHMENT OF BARGARH
Balaram Dev founded his capital on the bank of the everflowing river ‘Jira’. Prior to it, two brothers named Barna and Ujar belonging to the Sahara tribe built a fort on the bank of the river and ruled this region. Balaram Dev drove them out of power and settled here rebuilding the fort. He named it Bara (greatest) garh (fort). At first, it is known as the Huma kingdom. Bargarh is actually the first capital of Balaram Dev, the first independent king of the Sambalpur Kingdom. He settled here after he came from Patna. He donated some villages such as Ambapali, Dumberpali and Brahmachari etc. that are situated on the bank of Jira to Brahmins. Criminals were administered with death penalty executed at Shuliapada near Bargarh.
So, there was a fort on the bank of the river Jira and a population ruled by tribals inhabited the area. As far as the historical belief goes, the area was known as the Huma Kingdom. Balaram Dev came here and rebuilt the fort and established himself as the ruler. He most probably named the region Bargarh as a memento of his royal achievement. In course of time, he changed his capital to Nuangarh village surrounded by the Barapahar forest range which at present comes under Bhatli Police Station. As he moved out of his old capital Bargarh to settle in the newly built fort (Nuangarh), people obviously called it Nuangarh (newly built fort). Later, he saw Goddess Samaleswari in his dream during his halt at night on a haunting trip to the Chaunrpur forest range situated on the bank of the Mahanadi River. He was ordained by the Goddess to set up his capital at Sambalpur. He built her temple there and enshrined her taking her from Gumdarha. After he ruled Sambalpur from 1540 to 1556 A.D., the others who succeeded him were Hrudaya Narayan Dev from 1556 to 1561, Balabhadra Dev from 1561 to 1591, Madhukar Dev from 1591 to 1617, Baliyar Singh Dev from 1617 to 1657, Ratna Singh Dev for four months in 1657, Chhatra Singh Dev from 1657 to 1695, Ajit Singh Dev from 1695 to 1766, Abhaya Singh Dev from 1766 to 1778. In 1778, a minor named Balabhadra Sai belonging to the Chandrapur Zamindar family was made the King although Akbar Ray actually had all the royal powers. The minor king ruled the kingdom from 1778 to 1782. Jayant Singh Dev was the ruler of Sambalpur from 1782 to 1800.
In 1800 A.D. the Marathas conquered the Sambalpur Kingdom and ruled it upto 1817. Bhupa Singh, the representative of the Bhonsla ruled it from 1800 to 1802. After him, the Bhonsla appointed Tantia Gadnabish as the ruler of Sambalpur who reigned from 1802 to 1803. The second Maratha was between the Bhonsla and the Britishers started in the month of September in 1803.
On 2nd January, 1804, the British General Lieutenant Browton conquered Sambalpur and dislodged Tantia Gadnabish from power. The Britishers were unwilling to allow the Marathas to rule the kingdom after they captured it. However, Keshab Govinda, the Subadar of Ratnapur at that time refused to leave his region and continued to rule by keeping his troops at Sonepur. The Bhonsla from Nagpur in the mean time complained to the then Governor Lord Wellesley regarding British intrusion into regions outside Cuttack but it went in vain. The Britishers had reasons for not heeding to the complaint of the Bhonsla of Nagpur and dishonouring the Treaty of Deogaon. Commercial goods could be easily transported to Cuttack by Mahanadi water ways through Boudh and Sonepur regions and it was easy for them to travel through water ways. Browton wrote a letter to Harcourt on 24th March, 1804 not to return the Sambalpur kingdom again to the Bhonsla. On 26th March, in reply to a querry whether they wished to continue under the Bhonsla or not, Ratna Kumari, the queen of Sambalpur, and the Samanta kings such as Queen Laxmipriya of Sonepur, Raygard King Jujhur Singh, Saranggarh king Bishwanath Ray, Rairakhol King Bira Budha Jena, Gangpur King Indra Dev, Bamanda King Sachidanand Tribhuban Dev, Bargarh King Thakur Ranjit Singh at al refused to oblige to the autocracy of the Bhonsla.
After the Britishers conquered the Sambalpur Kingdom, they ruled the Gadjat kingdoms through political agents. The kings and zamindars of the eighteen gadjats remained so only in name. But when Vir Surendra Sai belonging to the Gond zamindar family of Khinda rebelled against the Britishers, he received overwhelming support from the Bargarh region. Paharsrigida zamindar Janardan Singh, Bheden zamindar Brukodar Singh, Ghess zamindar Madho Singh and his family extended immense help to him in this rebellion. However, Bargarh continued to be under British Rule till India achieved Independence in 1947.
When Gandhiji launched Non-Cooperation Movement against the Britishers after his return from South Africa, this region extended plenty of support as well. Pandit Ghanashyam Panigrahi, Fakira Behera, Madhaba Sathua, Rama Chandra Puri, Bhagirathi Pattnaik led the movement in this region. They too groomed thirty two freedom fighters of Panimora for the famous 1942 Quit-India Movement. The movement of 1942 also contributed to the emergence of the women leaders of the region such as Parbati Giri, and Prabhabati Devi .
Hence, Bargarh, founded by the Chauhan King Balaram Dev in the first half of the 16th century as a capital on the bank of the river Jira, is now a culturally and commercially rich town as well as one of the most important districts of Odisha.
——————————————————————————————————————

  • Dash, Shiba Prasad. Sambalpur Itihasa, 1st Edition, p.15.
  • Dubey, Prahallad. Jayachandrika
  • “Mata Sahita aaphi raja pahunchabat ko aaye

    Nadi Brahmani se nrupamata putrahi satya karaye,
    Nadi Naki jo seema chapale suno putra Tum Dui
    Mero haran dosh so paiheibane togniye joi,
    Bhrata Mata dou ko Bande dale deba Balarama
    Jaistha bhrata lai pahun te tuni pura patna dhama”

    1. LOCATION OF THE DISTRICT AND ITS ADJACENT DISTRICTS AND NEIGHBOURING BORDER STATES,LONGITUDE AND LATITUDE

    Bargarh as a new district came into being on 1st April, 1993. Bargarh lies on the western most corner of Odisha.The district is surrounded by Chhatisgarh State and the Districts of Jharsuguda on the north, Sambalpur on the east, Balangir and Sonepur on the south and Nuapada on the west.
    The district Baragarh extends over 82 degree 39’ to 83 degree 58’ East longitude and 20 degree 43’ to 21 degree 41’ North latitude.

    1. GEOGRAPHICAL AREA OF THE DISTRICT AND A BRIEF OUTLINE OF THE ADMINISTRATIVE SET UP

    It covers an area of 5837 Sq. Kms and consists of two Sub-divisions namely Bargarh and Padampur, one Municipality viz. Bargarh Municipality, three NACs (Notified Area Council) viz. Padampur, Barpali and Attabira, twelve Blocks and Tahasils both set up being coterminous with each other viz. [1] Ambabhona, [2] Attabira,[3] Bargarh ,[4]Barpali,[5] Bhatli,[6] Bheden, [7] Bijepur, [8] Gaisilat, [9] Jharbandh,[10]Padampur, [11] Paikmal and [12] Sohela.
    5.GEOGRAPHICAL DIVISIONS OF PRESENT BARGARH DISTRICT
    Geographically the district of Bargarh can be divided into three natural divisions viz. (i) The plain of Bargarh (ii) Raj Borasambar and (iii) Ambabhona-Lakhanpur.

    • The plain of Bargarh – It is formed by the rivers Jeera, Danta and Jhuan, the three tributaries of Mahanadi. The plain spread from Godbhaga in the east to Sohela in the west and Bhatli in the north to Bheden-Turum in the south. It is an expanse of undulating country slopping down from the Barapahar range in the north to the Mahanadi valley in the south having a soil suitable to rice production. The soil is mixture of clay, sand & gravel. It is nowhere found bare of vegetation.
    • Raj Borasambar – Raj Borasambar lies to the south-west of Bargarh plain is the 2nd largest division of the district. It is sub-divided into Gandha Mardana mountain and forest range and Ong river valley.
    • Gandha mardana mountain and forest range –

    It is formed by the three sub-ranges, the first being the Gandha Mardana mountain itself. It has separated Bargarh from Bolangir district. It is 2000 to 3000 feet in height. Nrusinghanath is the highest peak with 3234 feet i.e. 985.72 metres in height. The mountain contains many natural streams & waterfalls like Kapildhar, Chaldhar, Bhimdhar. It has many kinds of medicinal plants of which some are rare in the world. The people of the region are attached religiously in these stream. It is the Ganga of Chhatisgarh people.
    The second sub-range situated to the west of Nrusinghanath is running first North-South and then North-east at Jagdalpur where the river Ong breaks it.
    The third sub-range runs eastward to Tal and then runs to the north-east separating the district of Bargarh from Chhatisgarh region. It is joining to the western end of Barapahar range & has linked to the tail of the Vindhya Mountain range of Central India.

    • Ong river valley

    The Ong river valley is situated in between the hill ranges lying to the north & south of Raj Borasambar division. The whole valley particularly the eastern portion is best suited to agriculture due to river silt and hill drainage. The river has its origin in the Nuapara district & enters Raj Borasambar at its extreme south-west corner. It flows through in a wide Semi circle from west to east. It has left Bargarh district few miles east of Gaisilate to enter Subarnapur where joins to Mahanadi.

    • The Barapahar range and Ambabhona – Lakhanpur

    Barapahar is a cluster of small hills situated to the North-east of the district. It is called Barapahar because the tradition of the region supposes it to be twelve in number. It has an area of 776 Sq. Km. and its highest peak Debrigarh is 2267 ft. in height. It provides an all-weather stream near the submit in the name of Barabakhra where a flanked stone roof having capacity of giving shelter to 500 persons was an important shelter place of the revolurionaries during Ulgulan of Surendra Sai.
    The Ambabhona-Lakhanpur plain is cut off from the Bargarh plain by a long spur of the Barapahar hill running south west nearly 48 Kms. The region is dominated by the Mali caste people who called Mango or Aam as Ama and mangroves as ‘Bhona’ for which the place was called “Amabhana”. The area is slopping down from the Barapahar to the river Mahanadi situated in the north-east. The Lakhanpur tract suitable for good cultivation is surroundered by forest clad and hills.
    The whole Barapahar range is divided into the following reserve forest areas. (1) Sareidamu-Budharaja (7683.040 Hecter), (2) Dechuan-Lakhanpur (6997.000 Hecter), (3) Phulsuri-Dungri Reserve Forest to the side of Mahanadi (880.964 Hecter), (4) Lohra reserve forest near Kamgaon (346.091 Hecter) & (5) Debrigarh Reserve forest (2409 Hecter)
    GEOLOGICAL FORMATION, MINES,MINERALS AND ROCKS
    The Geology of Bargarh district constituted by the Central India Craton (CIC) and the Eastern Ghat Mobile Belt (EGMB) belong to the Archean to Proterozoic age. The younger intrusive alkaline rocks are found at the conjunction of the above two. The Chhattisgarh Group of rocks belongs to the Vindhyans which lies over the CIC basement.
    The Padampur civil Sub-division of Bargarh district exposes different lithostratigraphic units having varied lithoassemblages.
    The Iron Ore Group consists of relics of cherty quartzite, metavolcanics in an envelop of granite gneisses and migmatites. The granitic country is dominated by massive; medium grained granite of plutonic dimension (Sambalpur Granite) and is presently dated at Ca 2600. The intrusive of different compositions intrude into iron ore Group of rocks. The intrusives are identified as pyroxenites, granophyres, syenite, dolerite and quartzvein. Three different phases of intrusive have intruded at different periods of time presumably in middle to upper Proterozoic. The Eastern Ghat Super Group comprises rock types of granulite facies, viz: quartz-feldspar-garnet-sillimanite graphite schist/ gneiss, garnetiferous quartzite, calcgranulites (Khondalite group), Charnockite, leptynite, garmetiferous granite gneiss and migmatites (Granitoids). The anorthosite body possibly an apophysis of bolangir anorthosite is marked as an intrusive into Eastern Ghat Super Group of rock. The Eastern Ghat Super Group of rocks are juxtaposed against the Iron Ore Group craton along a tectonic lineament marked as T-T in plate- I.
    The chronostratigraphic relationship of Eastern Ghat Super Group of rocks vis-a-vis those of Iron Ore Group are highly conjectural. On a broader perspective, although both have late Archean ancestry, the EGMB (Eastern Ghat Mobile Belt) has yielded an overwhelmingly large impact on early to middle Proteomic dates.
    The Chhatisgarh Super Group of rocks are represented by conglomerate, grit, arkoze, sandstone, shale of Chandrapur group overlain by fine grained siltstone, shale, calcareous clay and limestone of Raipur Group.
    Gondwana Super Group of sediments occurs in a narrow basin along the Eastern Ghat Mobile Belt and Iron Ore Group border. These sediments are represented by pebbly sandstone, siltstone and needle clay. Fossil imprints of Glossopteris are reported from these rocks.
    Quaternary formations are represented by transported laterite, sandy clay and medium to fine sand.
    The Eastern Ghat Super Group of rocks show a history of posy phase intricate folding. Metamorphism had progressed up to granulite facies. Local partial melting and antefix is frequently observed.

    Mines & Mineral of Bargarh Forest Division.
    Sl. Name of Name of the Name of the Forest area Non-forest Total area Remarks
    No. the User Agency Minerals involved land involved of the  
      Division/     ( In Hect.) ( In Hect.) the Project  
      District         ( In Hect.)  
    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
                   
    1 Bargarh Dungri Lime Stone Quarry by M/s. ACC Ltd. Bargarh Cement Works, Bardol. Lime Stone 73.323 428.892 502.215 Out of total forest area 19.5 applied for 2nd RML
    1. Flora and Fauna:

    General Characteristics of Vegetation:
    The Topography of the Forest is hilly to moderately hill or plain area. The major forest types included in this Working Circle are 5B/CI Dry Sal Forest represented by the sub-type 5B/C1c dry peninsular Sal Forest, 5B/C2 Dry Mixed Deciduous Forests & 5/E9 Bamboo Brakes.
    The Reserved Forest blocks Sareidamak-Budharaja, Papanga, Jhanjpahar, Borasambar, Adwal, Gandhamardhan are allotted to this Working Circle. Salia Bamboo is present in number of blocks allotted to this Working Circle.
    The vegetation consists of mainly Sal and associated species like Piasal, Asan, Dhaura, Kurum, Kasi etc. Bamboo is present in varying densities which is found along with other tree species. Regeneration of Sal, other principal and secondary species are adequate. Climbers like Atundi (Combretum decandrum) and weeds like Eupatorium and Lantana at places are creating problems by suppressing the regeneration of principal species. The forests allotted to this Working Circle are subjected to various biotic pressures like grazing, fire and illicit felling. Steps need to be taken during the implementation of this Plan to ensure that these pressures are minimized in these blocks. In general, the problem of fire specially during the NTFP collection season is prevalent in the entire area, resulting in changes in soil composition and crop condition.
    <

    About surendrahota

    Profile photo of surendrahota

    Leave a Reply

    %d bloggers like this:
    Skip to toolbar